Institute of Human Genetics

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Molecular Cytogenetics

What is FISH?

Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) is the technique was described in 1980s by biomedical researchers. This technique can hybridize to the specific region of DNA on chromosomes and gives different fluorescence signals. This is useful in deletion or rearrangement of a single gene that can be detected, cryptic chromosome translocations can be assessed and very complex rearrangements can be fully characterized. Fluorescence microscopy is used to detect the binding of fluorescent probes with the specific region of chromosome.

FISH is also useful to detect the diseased cells easily than cytogenetic technique, that require dividing cells and more labor. FISH technique is mainly useful to diagnosis the specific syndromes like Cri-du-chat, DiGeorge, Prader-Willi, Angelman etc.

Using interphase FISH, genomic alterations can be studied in virtually all types of human tissues at any stage of cell division without the need of cell culture and chromosome preparation.


 


Abortus study by FISH

Cytogenetic study is frequently required from product of conceptus and in nearly 20% cases culture fails to grow due to contamination or cell death. Hence based on nearly 5000 cases we have observed common anomalies obtained in POC and developed FISH probes for the same. Whenever culture fails to grow we provide FISH study to find out common chromosomal anomalies observed in majority of the POC




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21316495

What is Array-CGH?

Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array-CGH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique to analyze the Copy Number Variotations (CNVs) in the DNA of the test sample in comparison with reference sample.

This is mainly used for cryptic genomic imbalances in cases with multiple congenital anomalies, neuropsychiatric disorders and delayed development.

There are various platforms available to read the microarray panel with variable sensitivity upto 10 kb gain or loss of genetic material.